Control valves are used to manage the flow rate of a liquid or a gas and in-turn control the temperature, pressure or liquid level within a process. As such, they are defined by the way in which they operate to control flow and include globe valves, angle seat, diaphragm, quarter-turn, knife and needle valves, to name a few. In most cases the valve bodies are made from metal; either brass, forged steel or in hygienic applications 316 stainless steel.
Actuators will use an on-board system to measure the position of the valve with varying degrees of accuracy, depending on the application. A contactless, digital encoder can place the valve in any of a thousand positions, making it very accurate, while more rudimentary measurements can be applied to less sensitive designs.
One of the main areas of debate when specifying globe control valve is determining the size of the valve required. Often process engineers will know the pipe diameter used in an application and it is tempting to take that as the control valve’s defining characteristic. Of greater importance are the flow conditions within the system as these will dictate the size of the orifice within the control valve. The pressure either side of the valve and the expected flow rate are essential pieces of information when deciding on the valve design.
Inside the valve body, the actuator design is often either a piston or a diaphragm design. The piston design typically offers a smaller, more compact valve which is also lighter and easier to handle than the diaphragm designs. Actuators are usually made from stainless steel or polyphenolsulpide (PPS), which is a chemically-resistant plastic. The actuator is topped off by the control head or positioner.
Older, pneumatically operated positioners had a flapper/nozzle arrangement and operated on 3-15psi, so no matter what the state of the valve, open closed or somewhere in between, the system was always expelling some compressed air to the atmosphere.
Compressed air is an expensive commodity, requiring considerable energy to generate and when a manufacturing line is equipped with multiple process control valves all venting to the atmosphere, this can equate to a considerable waste of energy. It is important to not only establish the most appropriate valve design, but also a cost-effective solution that takes account of annual running costs.
Modern, digital, electro-pneumatic valves that use micro-solenoid valves to control the air in and out of the actuator have introduced significant improvements for operators. This design means that while the valve is fully open, fully closed or in a steady state, it is not consuming any air. This, and many other engineering improvements, have made substantial advances in both economy and precision.
Valve seats can be interchangeable within a standard valve body, which allows the valve to fit existing pipework and the valve seat to the sized to the application more accurately. In some cases, this can be achieved after the valve has been installed, which would enable a process change to be accommodated without replacing the complete valve assembly.
Selecting the most appropriate seal materials is also an important step to ensure reliable operation; Steam processes would normally use metal-to-metal seals, whereas a process that included a sterilization stage may require chemically resistant seals.
Setting up and installing a new valve is now comparatively easy and much less time-consuming. In-built calibration procedures should be able perform the initial setup procedures automatically, measuring the air required to open and close the valve, the resistance of the piston seals on the valve stem and the response time of the valve itself.
Control valves should be specified so they operate in the 40-85% range so if the valve is commanded to a 10% setting, it can detect if something has potentially gone wrong with the control system and the best course of action is to close the valve completely. If the valve is commanded to a position of 10% or less this can cause very high fluid or gas velocities, which have damaging effects on the system and cause considerable noise and damage to the valve itself.
Modern control functionality can offer a solution that acts as a safety device to prevent damage to the process pipework and components. By building in a fail-safe mechanism, any valve position setting below a pre-set threshold will result in the valve closing completely, preventing damage to the surrounding system.
Control inputs can also include safety circuits to ensure safe operating conditions within the process equipment. For example, if an access panel on a vessel containing steam is opened, an interlock switch will open and the valve controlling the steam supply to the vessel can be automatically closed, helping mitigate any risks.
Many process control environments offer less than ideal conditions for long-term reliability. Moisture-laden atmospheres, corrosive chemicals and regular wash-downs all have the capacity to shorten the service life of a process Self regulating control valve. One of the potential weaknesses of the actuator is the spring chamber where atmospheric air is drawn in each time the valve operates.
One solution is to use clean, instrument air to replenish the spring chamber, preventing any contamination from entering. This offers a defense against the ingress of airborne contaminants by diverting a small amount of clean control air into the control head, maintaining a slight positive pressure, thus achieving a simple, innovative solution. This prevents corrosion of the internal elements and can make a significant improvement to reliability and longevity in certain operating conditions.
While choosing the most appropriate process control valve can be a complex task, it is often best achieved with the assistance of expert knowledge. Working directly with manufacturers or knowledgeable distributors enables process control systems to be optimized for long-term reliability as well as precision and efficiency.
Damien Moran is field segment manager, Hygienic – Pharmaceutical at Bürkert. This article originally appeared on the Control Engineering Europe website. Edited by Chris Vavra, associate editor, Control Engineering, CFE Media and technology, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Control valves are generally present whenever fluid flow regulation is required. The three way and angle control valve reliability is critical to the control quality and safety of a plant. An improved dynamic and static valve behaviour would have a major impact on the process output. In order to assess the dynamic performance of the control valve, a computer model of an electro-hydraulic control valve is developed. And the control valve characteristics are investigated through the use of mathematical simulations of the control valve dynamic performance. The results show that the electro-hydraulic driven control valve, which is developed to regulate the mixed-gas pressure in combined cycle power plant, can meet the challenge of the gas turbine.
Control valves play important roles in the control of the mixed-gas pressure in the combined cycle power plants (CCPP). In order to clarify the influence of coupling between the structure and the fluid system at the control valve, the coupling mechanism was presented, and the numerical investigations were carried out. At the same operating condition in which the pressure oscillation amplitude is greater when considering the coupling, the low-order natural frequencies of the plug assembly of the valve decrease obviously when considering the fluid-structure coupling action. The low-order natural frequencies at 25% valve opening, 50% valve opening, and 75% valve opening are reduced by 11.1%, 7.0%, and 3.8%, respectively. The results help understand the processes that occur in the valve flow path leading to the pressure control instability observed in the control valve in the CCPP.
The steel mills generate vast amounts of blast furnace gas (BFG) and coke-oven gas (COG) in the production. In order to reduce the environmental pollution, some steel mills mix BFG with COG and build combined cycle power plants (CCPP) to make use of the gas . For the normal operation of CCPP, the pressure of mixed gas delivered to the gas turbine should be kept in a steady range.
In CCPP, control valves play important roles in the control of the mixed-gas pressure. The signal of mixed-gas pressure measured using the pressure meter is compared to the signal of the desired pressure by the controller. The controller output accordingly adjusts the opening/closing actuator of the control valve in order to maintain the actual pressure close to the desired pressure. The opening of the control valve depends on the flow forces and the driving forces of the control-valve actuator, while the flow forces and the driving forces are affected by the valve opening. Therefore, there is strong coupling interaction between the fluid and the control valve structure.
According to Morita et al. (2007) and Yonezawa et al. (2008), the typical flow pattern around the Knife Gate Valve is transonic [2, 3]. When pressure fluctuations occur, large static and dynamic fluid forces will act on the valves. Consequently, problematic phenomena, such as valve vibrations and loud noises, can occur, with the worst cases resulting in damage of the valve plug and seal . In order to understand the underlying physics of flow-induced vibrations in a steam control valve head, experimental investigations described by Yonezawa et al. (2012) are carried out. Misra et al. (2002) reported that the self-excited vibration of a piping system occurs due to the coincidence of water hammer, acoustic feedback in the downstream water piping, high acoustic resistance at the control valve, and negative hydraulic stiffness at the control valve . Araki et al. (1981) reported that the steam control-valve head oscillation mechanism was forced vibration, while self-excited vibration was not observed .
Those studies cited previously are mainly aimed at the modeling of the self-excited vibration, the analysis of vibration parameters stability, and so on [7–11]. Whereas, the studies on the influence of nonlinear fluid-structure coupling of control valve on the valve control characteristics, such as the pressure regulation feature, are still very limited [12–17]. In the CCPP, the valve control characteristics affected by the fluid-structure coupling are particularly important for the stability of the mixed-gas pressure control. It has not been uncommon to see that the instability of the mixed-gas pressure causes a severe disturbance or even an emergency shutdown of the whole plant, and the handling of such an emergency often becomes a source of new problems and confusion. In this paper, numerical investigations are carried out to clarify the influence of fluid-structure coupling of control valve on not only the flow field but also the gas pressure regulation and the natural frequency changes of the control valve. This study helps understand the processes that occur in the valve flow path leading to the mixed-gas pressure pulsations, which is valuable for the pressure stability control of the mixed gas in the CCPP.
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