RF Adapters Gain Bandwidth While Lowering Return Loss
From laboratory test setups to the transmitting equipment connected to base-station antennas, coaxial and waveguide adapters have been guiding RF and microwave signals for a long time. These adapters have increased flexibility by establishing connections between different or dissimilar connectors. At the same time, they have steadily continued to make electrical and mechanical progress in order to meet new performance goals set by modern and emerging applications. RF connectors suppliers have been able to continuously augment adapter performance by using newer materials, improved manufacturing methods and plating techniques, precision assembly processes, and clever impedance transformer designs.
Traditionally, waveguide-to-coaxial adapters have been a right-angle solution for applications requiring transition. In many situations, however, it is desirable to have connectors inline with the waveguide. By employing the latest RF techniques coupled with precision assembly methods, RLC Electronics has developed in-line adapters also popularly known as end-launch adapters. According to RLC's Director of Marketing, Peter Jeffery, the only advantage here is mechanical and there is also a disadvantage: very narrow bandwidth. Further details on this customer-specific solution were unavailable.
Numerous firms have taken more standard approaches (see Table). Space Machine & Engineering Corp., for instance, has readied a standard series of end-launch waveguide-to-coaxial adapters that incorporate its proprietary matching structure into the waveguide. To obtain broader bandwidth, the company has developed double-ridge waveguide-to-coaxial endlaunch adapters covering sizes WRD750 through WRD200 (Fig. 1). The adapters boast a maximum voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) of 1.5:1. Doubleridge waveguides for end-launch-style adapters also have been developed by AR RF/Microwave Instrumentation, Cobham Defense Electronic Systems, and QuinStar Technology. Both AR and QuinStar also offer these adapters with rectangular waveguides using a variety of coaxial connectors.
Among the additional proponents of end-launch-style waveguideto- coaxial adapters are Advanced Technical Materials, A-INFO, Flann Microwave, Maury Microwave, Microwave Engineering Corp., and Unique Broadband Systems. Aside from achieving a low profile with short length and low loss and VSWR, Microwave Engineering's design permits its end-launch adapters to operate over multi-octave bandwidths at high power levels.
Developers of end-launch adapters also provide right-angle models. RLC, for example, has been making standard waveguide-to-coaxial adapters in a variety of configurations for applications in the 3.3-to-40-GHz range with options for a broadband or band-specific model. Broadband waveguide-to-coaxial adapters maintain superior electrical specifications over the entire bandwidth. In contrast, band-specific models offer enhanced electrical performance for a specified bandwidth around the center frequency.
The firm's WAD series comprises 50-Ω coaxial-connector types including N, SMA, and K male or female. The adapters' average power-handling capability is 300 W for N, 60 W for SMA, and 25 W for K-type connectors with the waveguide flange as standard. Although insertion loss ranges to just 0.05 dB between 3.3 and 8.2 GHz, it begins to climb as the frequency goes higher. Hence, insertion loss rises to 0.1 dB between 10 and 18 GHz and climbs to 0.15 dB as frequency scales beyond 18 GHz. Likewise, VSWR is 1.2:1 between 3.3 and 8.2 GHz, but deteriorates to 1.35:1 with frequency ascending to 18 GHz and beyond.
The manufacturer also has introduced right-angle solder-free adapters that can handle frequencies to 11 GHz from -65 to 165C. The 50-Ω UG-27 C/U adapters are rated for operating voltages to 1000 V RMS with a maximum dielectric withstanding voltage of 2000 V RMS at 60 Hz at sea level. They flaunt a VSWR of 1.15:1 from DC to 6 GHz and 1.35:1 from 6 to 11 GHz, respectively. Featuring silver and gold center contact plating, the adapters come with albaloy, nickel, and silver body plating.
For their relatively small size and good electrical performance, SMA connectors are commonly found in wireless systems, military/aerospace equipment, test and measurement setups, and Global Positioning System (GPS) antennas. Because these connectors use threaded coupling, they require operator time especially in test environments. It takes time to make the threaded connection and then torque the coupling prior to test. To save time and simplify the testing process, Molex has developed two versions of SMA jack to SMA slide on the plug adapter. While a floating-panel-mount version targets test fixtures (73251-2130), the knurled-body version is designed for use on the end of test cables for production testing (73251-2380).
This adapter mates with standard SMA as per MIL-STD-348A. To create constant ground, it uses a berylliumcopper (BeCu) spring on the SMA push-on side. According to the company, this 50-Ω adapter boasts a maximum VSWR of 1.25:1 to 18 GHz. Its body is stainless-steel passivated while the center contact is gold plated.
To ease interconnections in system applications, Response Microwave has launched a new line of coaxial adapters in frequency ranges from DC through 50 GHz with impedances of both 50 and 75 Ω. The 75-Ω BNC , 1.0/2.3, and 1.6/5.6 in-series adapters are specifically tailored for telecommunications and networking infrastructure, explains Peter A. Alfano, the company's Director of Business Development. Alfano points out that the in-series and between-series adapters offer popular interfaces like SMA, SSMA, SMB, 2.4 mm, 2.9 mm, 3.9 mm, SMP, N, 7/16, BNC, TNC, MCX, MMCX, 1.0/2.3, and 1.5/5.6. Plus, there are coupling options like thread-on, push-on, and quick disconnect (Fig. 2). These adapters also come in a variety of configurations, such as in-line, right angle, T, and U-link. They are available in both stainless-steel and brass housings with silver, gold, nickel, or ternary plating options.
With the proliferation of WiFi and broadband infrastructure for telecommunications and high-speed data communications, a tremendous need has arisen for a variety of connectors to test cables in the field. RF Connectors' Vice President of Marketing, Manny Gutsche, points out that the unavailability of any unique interconnection in the field can pose a problem and delay testing. To simplify this task, RF adaptors a division of RF Industrieshas crafted a universal adapter kit labeled RFA-4028-WIFI.
This kit comprises the Unidapt RF cable tester with an assortment of 30 universal adapters, which include male and female MMCX, N, reverse-polarity (RP) TNC, RP SMA, TNC, BNC, and SMA connector interfaces. By screwing any two interface adapters in this kit to a universal center, Gutsche says that scores of different adapters can be made in seconds. All adapters feature machined brass, silver-plated bodies, gold-plated contacts, and Teflon insulation. They also are sold separately. Without the tester, the universal adapter kit is labeled RFA-4024-WIFI (Fig. 3).
Other suppliers offering such universal kits include Bomar Interconnect Products and MegaPhase. To address the needs of technicians and engineers in the broadcast field, Bomar has readied a 42-piece adapter kit, called ADPT4RP, that contains the parts most often needed by technicians in on-site antenna installations. The product consists of two male and two female Type N, BNC, UHF, TNC, TNC reverse-thread (RT), TNC-RP, SMA, and SMA-RP 50-Ω coaxial parts as well as eight universal adapters and two flat wrenches. These parts are fabricated using precision-machined brass with corrosion-resistant gold bodies, Teflon insulators, and gold-plated contacts. For its part, MegaPhase's universal adapter kit includes tools to properly terminate three different-length cable sub-assemblies with various connector combinations.
An F connector is a fitting that connects a coaxial cable to an electronic device or a wall jack.
Traditional coaxial cables were once the standard means of connecting a television to an antenna or cable TV access point. But they are less common now that high-definition and ultra-high-definition televisions make prevalent use of HDMI, fiber optical, and ethernet cables for many of their connections. Still, coaxial cables have their purposes, and your video system may still use them.
A coaxial cable used to bring electronic signals to a television or other electronic device terminates in an F connector. There are several ways these F connectors can be attached to coaxial cable. Professional installers use a coaxial cable stripper, which strips all three layers of the cable at once. Then, they slip on the F connector and secure it with a coaxial cable tool, which presses the connector onto the cable and crimps it at the same time.
Choosing the proper BNC connector to suit the cable for your project usually comes with a price. The price typically needs to be an appropriate assessment of the intending cable. A major issue plaguing most corporate organizations and teams is choosing the right cable. BNC cables remain one of the most used cable types across different industries. This article presents all you need to know about the BNC cable. You will learn about Siamese cables, connectors, benefits, and applications of other types of cables.
There are many definitions of the BNC acronym. Other names include Barrel Nut connector, Bayonet Navy connector, Bayonet Nipple connector, and British Naval Connector. Nevertheless, they are popularly known as the “Bayonet Neill-Concelman.”
Bayonet Neill-Concelman (BNC) is used as a socket and plug for video signals, audio signals, power, and networking systems. These devices are known to offer the best connection to devices. They have a powerful bond with any device of choice.
An IEC connector refers to a type of electronic cable that meet the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards. The specification for IEC connectors is IEC-60320. The connectors mount with cables are commonly referred to as female connectors or sockets, whereas the connectors mount with panels are known as male connectors or plugs.
IEC-60320 is a standard for male and female connectors used in cables and electric devices such as computers, workstations, laptops, printers and so on. Note that the IEC-60320 standard applies to different range and types of electrical devices. There is a range of standardized connectors that differ in regards to current capacities, temperature ratings and number of conductors. The main purpose of these cables is to attach an electronic appliance to its power source.
The RCA connector was invented in the 1940s and was first used to connect an amplifier to a phonograph. They are sometimes referred to as phono connectors due to this original purpose, even though they can be used to carry both audio and video from many different devices. By the 1950s, the RCA connector had largely replaced the tip ring sleeve (TRS) connector in most high fidelity audio systems, and they remained popular even after the introduction of digital audio and video. Most audio-visual equipment comes equipped with RCA connectors, and some speakers do as well.
There are two types of RCA connectors that are used together to make solid electrical connections. Female RCA connectors are typically located on devices. These connectors typically protrude from a device and have one contact on the exterior surface and another in the center. Male RCA connectors are typically found on cable ends and contain an outer sleeve contact in addition to a central pin connection. There are also numerous other configurations, such as extension cables that have one male and one female RCA connector, splitters that can connect a monaural output to a stereo input, and converters that include female RCA connectors and a male TRS connector.
Do you find it difficult to identify what RF connector type you're going to use in an application? If so, don’t worry. In this article, you will learn about the different types of RF connectors and what applications they are commonly used for.
RF connectors are connectors that are designed to work at radio frequencies for signal transmission of products like radios, antennas, coaxial cables, etc. However, these connectors have a variety of types.
The Type N connector is a threaded, weatherproof, medium sized connector for durable applications that can easily handle frequencies up to 11 Ghz. This type of connector follows MIL-STD-348 and widely used in lower frequency microwave systems where ruggedness and low cost are needed.
DIN Connectors were originally brought into line in the 1970s. It is an electrical connector, and its architecture has multiple pins that are under a protective circular sheath. Normally, a full-sized DIN Connector contains three to 14 pins with a diameter of 13.2 millimetres.
The term Din connector doesn’t refer to a specific cable. Instead, it requires all the connectors that meet the Din standard.
The circular connector is another name for Din Connector in computer electronics. It’s also used for a digital interface such as musical instrument digital interfaces MIDI.
There are mainly two types of DIN connector. We will discuss them briefly one by one.
? Circular connector
? Loudspeaker connector
Circular connectors consist of a family of male plugs. They have the same feature of 13.2 diameter metal shield with a notch that limits the orientation in which the plug and socket can connect.
There are seven common patterns, which can be any number from three to eight pins. When some high range equipment uses seven-pin connectors, then the outer two carries digital system data. If the equipment is incompatible, then the outer two pins from plug should unscrew. That is why we fit them into standard five pins 180” sockets without data connections. We are going to produce more new products.
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