- Utworzony: 04-11-21
- Ostatnie logowanie: 04-11-21
Opis: Mystery of the wheelie suitcase: how gender stereotypes held back the history of invention In 1970 an American ABS luggage executive unscrewed four castors from a wardrobe and fixed them to a suitcase. Then he put a strap on his contraption and trotted it gleefully around his house. This was how Bernard Sadow invented the world's first rolling suitcase. It happened roughly 5,000 years after the invention of the wheel and barely one year after Nasa managed to put two men on the surface of the moon using the largest rocket ever built. We had driven an electric rover with wheels on a foreign heavenly body and even invented the hamster wheel. So why did it take us so long to put wheels on suitcases? This has become something of a classic mystery of innovation. Nobel prize-winning economist Robert Shiller discusses the matter in two different books, Narrative Economics and The New Financial Order. He sees it as an archetypal example of how innovation can be a very slow-footed thing: how the "blindingly obvious" can stare us expectantly in the face for an eternity. Nassim Nicholas Taleb is another world-renowned thinker who has pondered the mystery. Having lugged heavy suitcases through airports and railway stations for years, he was astonished by his own unquestioning acceptance of the status quo. Taleb sees the rolling suitcase as a parable of how we often tend to ignore the simplest solutions. As humans, we strive for the difficult, grandiose and complex. Technology – such as having wheels on suitcases – may appear obvious in hindsight, but that doesn't mean it was obvious. Similarly, in management and innovation literature, the late invention of the rolling suitcase often appears as somewhat of a warning. A reminder of our limitations as innovators. But there is one factor that these thinkers have missed. I stumbled upon it when I was researching my book on women and innovation. I found a photo in a newspaper archive of a woman in a fur coat pulling a suitcase on wheels. It made me stop in my tracks because it was from 1952, 20 years before the official "invention" of the rolling suitcase. Fascinated, I kept looking. Soon, a completely different story about our limitations as innovators was rolling out. The modern suitcase was born at the end of the 19th century. When mass tourism first took off, Europe's large railway stations were inundated with porters, who would help passengers with their bags. But, by the middle of the 20th century, the porters were dwindling in number, and passengers increasingly carried their own PP luggage. Advertisements for products applying the technology of the wheel to the suitcase can be found in British newspapers as early as the 1940s. These are not suitcases on wheels, exactly, but a gadget known as "the portable porter" – a wheeled device that can be strapped on to a suitcase. But it never really caught on. In 1967, a Leicestershire woman wrote a sharply worded letter to her local newspaper complaining that a bus conductor had forced her to buy an additional ticket for her rolling suitcase. The conductor argued that "anything on wheels should be classed as a pushchair". She wondered what he would have done if she had boarded the bus wearing roller-skates. Would she be charged as a passenger or as a pram? The woman in the fur coat and the Leicestershire woman on the bus are the vital clues to this mystery. Suitcases with wheels existed decades before they were "invented" in 1972, but were considered niche products for women. And that a product for women could make life easier for men or completely disrupt the whole global ABS+PC luggage industry was not an idea the market was then ready to entertain. Resistance to the rolling suitcase had everything to do with gender. Sadow, the "official" inventor, described how difficult it was to get any US department store chains to sell it: "At this time, there was this macho feeling. Men used to carry on luggage for their wives. It was … the natural thing to do, I guess." Two assumptions about gender were at work here. The first was that no man would ever roll a suitcase because it was simply "unmanly" to do so. The second was about the mobility of women. There was nothing preventing a woman from rolling a suitcase – she had no masculinity to prove. But women didn't travel alone, the industry assumed. If a woman travelled, she would travel with a man who would then carry her bag for her. This is why the industry couldn't see any commercial potential in the rolling suitcase. It took more than 15 years for the invention to go mainstream, even after Sadow had patented it. In the 1984 Hollywood film Romancing the Stone, a rolling suitcase is featured as something of a silly feminine thing. Kathleen Turner's character insists on bringing her wheeled suitcase to the jungle, to the great annoyance of Michael Douglas, who is trying to save them from villains, while tracking down a legendary gigantic emerald. Then, in 1987, US pilot Robert Plath created the modern cabin bag. He turned Sadow's suitcase on its side and made it smaller. In the 1980s, more women started to travel alone, without a man to carry their spinner luggage set. The wheeled suitcase carried with it a dream of greater mobility for women. Bit by bit, the rolling suitcase became a feature of the modern businessman's arsenal. We forgot all about the intense and very gendered resistance the product had encountered. But we shouldn't – because this story carries some important lessons about innovation that we need to hear today. We couldn't see the genius of the wheeled suitcase because it didn't align with our prevailing views on masculinity. In hindsight, we find this bizarre. How could the predominant view on masculinity turn out to be more stubborn than the market's desire to make money? How could the crude idea that men must carry heavy things prevent us from seeing the potential in a product that would come to transform an entire global industry? But is it really that surprising? The world is full of people who would rather die than let go of certain notions of masculinity. Doctrines like "real men don't eat vegetables", "real men don't get check-ups for minor things" and "real men don't have sex with condoms" kill very real men every single day. Our society's ideas on masculinity are some of our most unyielding ideas, and our culture often values the preservation of certain concepts of masculinity over life itself. In this context, such ideas are certainly powerful enough to hold back technological innovation. The rolling suitcase is far from the only example. When electric cars first emerged in the 1800s they came to be seen as "feminine" simply because they were slower and less dangerous. This held back the size of the electric car market, especially in the US, and contributed to us building a world for petrol-driven cars. When electric starters for petrol-driven cars were developed they were also considered to be something for the ladies. The assumption was that only women were demanding the type of safety measures that meant being able to start your car without having to crank it at risk of injury. Ideas about gender similarly delayed our efforts to meet the technological challenges of producing closed cars because it was seen as "unmanly" to have a roof on your car. Assumptions about masculinity play a similar role today in relation to innovation around sustainability. For example, we often think that consumption of meat and preferences for large cars – instead of travel by public transport – are essential features of masculinity. This holds innovation back and prevents us from imagining new ways of living powered by new technologies. Perhaps in the future we will laugh at our current struggle to get many men to adopt a more environmentally friendly lifestyle, in the same way that we shake our heads at how unthinkable it was for a man to wheel his suitcase 40 years ago. Ideas about gender also limit what we even count as technology. We talk about "the iron age" and "the bronze age". We could also talk about "the ceramic age" and "the flax age", since these technologies were just as important. But technologies associated with women are not considered to be inventions in the same way that those associated with men are. Gender answers the riddle of why it took 5,000 years for us to put wheels on suitcases. It's perhaps easy to think that we wouldn't make similar mistakes today. But many of the structural problems are still here. We still have male-dominated industries not interested in dealing with the fact that women influence 80% of all consumer decisions. Products are still being built and designed with only men in mind and we have a financial system that stubbornly refuses to see the potential of women's ideas. Today, less than 1% of UK venture capital goes to all-female teams. Among the very few women who do get funded, a very large majority are white. Of course, venture capital isn't everything – there are other ways to fund and scale innovation – but the fact that men, more or less, have a monopoly is certainly a symptom of an economy where women's ideas are not heard. The many economists and thinkers who have thought about how we didn't put wheels on suitcases until 1972 were right to note that this story is a symptom of a larger problem. It was just a slightly different problem than the one they imagined it to be. This article was amended on 8 July 2021. Bernard Sadow invented the rolling suitcase in 1970, not 1972, which was the year the invention was patented. Mother of Invention: How Good Ideas Get Ignored in an Economy Built for Men by Katrine Mar?al is published by William Collins (￡18.99). To support the Guardian order your copy at guardianbookshop.com. Delivery charges may apply. More than 1.5 million readers, from 180 countries, have recently taken the step to support us financially – keeping us open to all, and fiercely independent. With no shareholders or billionaire owner, we can set our own agenda and provide trustworthy journalism that's free from commercial and political influence, offering a counterweight to the spread of misinformation. When it's never mattered more, we can investigate and challenge without fear or favour. Unlike many others, Guardian journalism is available for everyone to read, regardless of what they can afford to pay. We do this because we believe in information equality. Greater numbers of people can keep track of global events, understand their impact on people and communities, and become inspired to take meaningful action. We aim to offer readers a comprehensive, international perspective on critical events shaping our world – from the Black Lives Matter movement, to the new American administration, Brexit, and the world's slow emergence from a global pandemic. We are committed to upholding our reputation for urgent, powerful reporting on the climate emergency, and made the decision to reject advertising from fossil fuel companies, divest from the oil and gas industries, and set a course to achieve net zero emissions by 2030.
Data publikacji: 04-11-21
Opis: CNC Milling vs. CNC Turning: All You Need to Know CNC machining is a rapid manufacturing process that turns digital 3D designs into plastic or metal parts by selectively cutting away material. Many companies require CNC machining service to make parts and prototypes, and many industries use the versatile technology. But CNC machining comes in various forms. Although all CNC machining technologies follow a similar workflow — software turns the digital design into machine instructions, which instruct the CNC machine to cut material — the hardware for cutting material can differ greatly between machines. This article discusses the main differences between two of those machines: CNC mills and CNC turning (or lathes centers). In the article we discuss the essential features of CNC milling parts and CNC turning while also presenting the main advantages of each technology and a selection of common parts that companies can manufacture using each process. CNC milling is one of the most common CNC machining service, and machinists can use it to make a wide variety of CNC machined parts. Prototype companies often use CNC mills to make one-off functional prototypes. CNC mills use computer instructions to move a rapidly rotating cutting tool along three or more axes. When the spinning cutting tool makes contact with the workpiece, it removes material in a controlled manner. The cutting tool makes a succession of passes against the surface of the workpiece until the workpiece resembles the desired part. Most CNC mills keep the workpiece stationary, holding it down on the machine bed with a vice. However, multi-axis CNC mills may rock or rotate the workpiece to create a greater number of cutting angles. This allows the machinist to create more complex parts without having to manually reorient the workpiece. Providers of rapid prototyping services use CNC machining because it is a one-stop, end-to-end process with short lead times. CNC turning is a form of CNC machining that machinists use to make rounded, cylindrical, and conical parts. Although it is less versatile than CNC milling, it is one of the most popular CNC machining services and rapid prototyping services. Machines that carry out CNC turning parts are called CNC lathes or CNC turning centers. They are different from CNC mills in that they rapidly rotate the workpiece in a chuck but do not rotate the cutting tool. The cutting tool, affixed to a turret, moves towards the spinning workpiece under computer instructions and removes material where necessary. A CNC lathe can cut the outside of the workpiece or bore through the inside to create tubular CNC machined parts. The turret of the machine may have multiple cutting tools that can be individually engaged as required. Advantages of CNC Milling CNC mills offer numerous advantages to manufacturers and prototype companies. Unlike lathes, mills are versatile machines capable of creating a range of different shapes. Furthermore, a variety of cutting tools can be used to serve different operations such as roughing and end-milling. Although they are manufacturing machines in their own right, mills are also useful for post-machining. For example, they can be used to add details to turned, molded, or 3D printed parts. CNC milling is also fast, repeatable, and inexpensive in low volumes — partly because it does not require tooling. It is therefore found among manufacturing services and rapid prototyping services. Advantages of CNC Turning The biggest advantage of CNC turning is its ability to create round profiles. It is much more difficult to achieve perfect roundness using other CNC machining parts services like CNC milling or CNC routing. CNC turning is also highly accurate, which makes it a valuable technology for boring holes of precise dimensions with set tolerances. CNC milling and CNC turning can be combined to reap the benefits of both processes. In most cases, CNC turning takes place first, allowing the machinist to mill further (asymmetrical) details on the part. As a rule of thumb, CNC turning is best for parts with round, cylindrical, or conical profiles, and aluminium CNC milling parts is best for everything else. If in doubt, a machining expert can guide you to the right CNC machining service for your unique project. That being said, CNC milling and CNC turning can be combined to good effect. If a part has a predominantly round shape but also requires asymmetrical cuts or features, CNC milling can follow CNC turning in sequence. And although it is less common, CNC turning can also follow CNC milling — if a boxy or irregular-shaped part requires a large hole bored through its center, for example. Finally, sometimes you don't have to choose: CNC milling-turning centers integrate both technologies into a single production device. What is a CNC Milling Machine and how does it work? How do CNC milling machines compare to CNC Lathes? When do you need such a CNC machine tool? Focused on milling – the process of machining using rotating tools to gradually remove material from a workpiece – CNC milling machines are a mainstay for factories around the world. These machine tools make use of a variety of cutting tools along one or more axes to remove material from a workpiece through mechanical means. CNC milling machines are often used in a variety of manufacturing industries: from industries like aerospace, shipping, automobiles, and oil drilling / pumping and refining, to medical, FMC manufacturing, and precision engineering sectors. Also called CNC Machining Centers, the more advanced CNC milling machines can operate along multiple-axis. These may be fitted with automatic tool changers, advanced machine coolant systems, pallet changers, and advanced software to improve the efficiency and accuracy of machining processes. CNC Milling Machines are machine operated cutting tools that are programmed and managed by Computer Numerical Control (CNC) systems to accurately remove materials from a workpiece. The end result of the machining process is a specific part or product that is created using a Computer Aided Design (CAD) software. These machine tools are normally equipped with a main spindle and three-linear-axes to position or move the part to be machined. More advanced versions may have a 4th or 5th rotational axis to allow for more precise shapes of varying dimensions and sizes to be machined. CNC milling machines / machining centers normally employ a process of material cutting termed milling or machining – the milling process involves securing a piece of pre-shaped material (also known as the workpiece) to a fixture attached to a platform in the milling machine. A rapidly rotating tool (or a series of interchangeable tools) is then applied to the material to remove small chips of the material until the desired shape for the part is achieved. Depending on the material used for the part, as well as the complexity of the machined part, varying axes, cutting head speeds, and feed rates may be applied. Milling is normally used to machine parts that are not symmetrical from an axial perspective. These parts may have unique curvatures or surface contours, which may require a combination of drilling & tapping, grooves, slots, recesses, pockets and holes to work on them. They may also form parts of the tooling for other manufacturing processes – for example in the fabrication of 3D moulds. In the past, milling machines were manually operated. Operators had to use a combination of machines with different tools to machine a more complex part or product. Or they had to use various settings on one machine just to complete the job. With the advancement of technology such a CNC controls and Automatic Tool Changers (ATCs), greater efficiency, flexibility and speed can be achieved – even for more convoluted parts. The provision of digital readouts and measuring systems has also improved the accuracy of CNC machining processes. To cater to manufacturers that require the flexibility of "High Mix, Low Volume" (HMLV) or "small batch" production, CNC machining centers can be fitted with Pallet Changers or other automation solutions to form part of a Flexible Manufacturing Cell (FMC) or Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS). This allows such machines to cater to a wide variety of machining demands and needs. The general principle for a CNC milling machine or CNC machining center is that the part to be machined is clamped on top of the machine table. It could be clamped directly on the table itself, or held in place by a vice or fixture. The spindle (moving section) including the cutting tool is then either vertically or horizontally positioned. In that configuration, the tool can reach various X-Y-Z positions on the work piece and commence cutting and shaping actions. As it does so, the work piece or part may either be fixed, mounted, or moved/positioned by the table in a linear direction to the spindle with the cutting tool. This allows material to be removed according to the desired shape needed for the machined part. For a CNC milling machine (aka CNC machining center), the work piece is fixed or mounted in position using a vice or fixture while the cutting tool is manoeuvred on top of or around the piece. Material is then gradually removed using cutting tools or drills which rotate at high speed with varying feed rates along two or more axes. In the case of a CNC Lathe (aka CNC Turning Center), however, the work piece (usually cylindrical) is mounted on a rotating chuck or on the main spindle. It is then "turned" (hence the name turning Center) or rotated along a main axis while the cutting tool located in a rotational or positioning turret would move in a parallel direction to the piece. Material is then removed using stationery cutting tools. Thus, a CNC milling machine use a spinning tool with a stationery work piece, whereas a CNC Lathe would involve spinning the material to be worked on by a stationery cutting tool.
Data publikacji: 04-11-21
Opis: What are lenticular images, and why do they look so awesome? Every day, there are hundreds—perhaps even thousands—of advertising messages knocking on your head trying to gain access to the part of your brain that decides to buy things. With so much money at stake, it's hardly surprising that advertisers go to such extraordinary lengths to catch our attention. The only trouble is, our brains habituate: they quickly get used to seeing the same thing over and over again. So the advertisers have to keep thinking of new tricks to stay one step ahead. One of their latest ideas is to print posters, magazines, and book covers with lenticulars—images that seem to change as you move your head. Let's take a closer look at how they work! Nothing! Lentils are tiny orange, green, or brown pulses popular with vegetarians and—no—they have nothing to do with how book covers work. The connection between "lentil" and "lenticular" is simply a matter of words. Lenticulars are so-called because they use lenses, which are pieces of plastic or glass that bend (or "refract") light to make things look bigger or smaller. Lenses got their name because some of them just happen to look a bit like lentils! You can find more in our main article on lenses (we even tell you how to make a lens of your own, in about 5 seconds flat, from a drop of water). How do you make something like our book cover up above? You take your two different images and load them into a computer graphics program. The program cuts each image into dozens of thin strips and weaves them together so the strips from the first image alternate with the strips from the second. This process is called interlacing. If you look at the doubled-up image printed this way, it's just a horribly confusing mess, but not for long! Next, you place a transparent plastic layer on top of the doubled-up image. This is made of dozens of separate thin, hemi-spherical lenses called lenticles. These refract (bend) the light passing through them so, whichever side you're looking from, you see only half the printed strips. Move your head back and forth and the image flips back and forth too like a kind of "visual see-saw". For all this to work properly, everything has to be printed with incredible precision. The lenticles have to be exactly the same size as the printed strips underneath them and lined up with them exactly. Not only that, the image has to be adjusted and printed so that it looks exactly right when viewed through a certain piece of lenticular poster(with a certain "pitch"—or number of lenticles per inch) at a certain viewing distance. (That's a fiddly technical process and I won't go into the details here, but you can find out more in the articles and videos in the further reading section below.) Nothing says lenticulars have to flip back and forth between just two images: some have as many as 20 different images or "frames" (as they're sometimes called, using the language of moviemaking). You could have half a dozen different images designed to point in slightly different directions, so an advertising poster slowly and subtly changes its message as you walk past! You can also use lenticulars to create amazing 3D images similar to holograms. For a basic flip image that changes as you move your head, you need to arrange the lenticles so both eyes always see the same image; as you move your head, both eyes then switch simultaneously to the other image. Adding more images, it's possible to create a basic illusion of movement (a bit like a flip book) and a zooming effect, so the image appears to get closer or further away as you move the flip lenticular poster back and forth. With a slightly different arrangement of lenticles, arranged vertically, we can send one image to one eye and the alternate interleaved image to the other, giving the illusion of a three-dimensional picture. Lenticular images are the neato transforming pictures that often came on trading cards in the 1980s and 90s. They were handy for freaking out young children or filing your nails. Turn them one way and they show one picture. Turn them another and they show another. How? A trick of the light. And plastics. Lenticular images are the kind of things they used to give out as free promotional material. They were best suited to things like trading cards of Transformers, because when looked at from one position, the card would display an image of the untransformed robot, while from another angle, it would display the image of whatever it transformed into. (On the back could be a description of why transformers transformed into cars with passenger compartments even when there weren't people to be passengers on their world.) The cards were covered with a piece of ridged plastic. The images take advantage of light's tendency to bend, and only bend a certain amount. The ridges of plastic essentially 'block' parts of the image from the viewer. Light from certain parts of the image is reflected or bent away from the viewer. Each ridge, across the page, directs certain slices of the image back to the viewer. As the viewer moves, they are exposed to different parts of the ridges and see different slices of the page. The image underneath the ridges is a series of interlaced slices - a little like a colored bar code. Each slice matches up with a section of ridge, and the slices come together to make the full image. Early lenticular images generally only had two pictures and flipped back and forth. More modern ones will be a little more complicated, with many different images, each corresponding to a different segment on the ridge. Some will even present a 3D picture, by showing slightly different image slices to each eye. For example the right eye could see one angle of a face, and the left eye could see another. This is how the eyes regularly build 3D images in the mind, and so the two images combine into a 3D picture. All it takes it the right kind of sectioning, and, of course, plastic. This dialogue by Shakespeare very likely refers to 5D lenticular pictures — those accordion-pleated creations that show different images when you look at them from the left or right. In Shakespeare's time and in the 20th century, lenticulars were manufactured as amusing distractions. Today, the technique is finding a home in fine art — including this month at The Art League. One of the first examples of a lenticular picture still in existence is the Double Portrait of King Frederik IV and Queen Louise of Mecklenburg-Güstow of Denmark by Gaspar Antoine de Bois-Clair, signed 1692. As you can see in the photo, this type of 3D lenticular picture uses a corrugated structure to achieve the effect. Look at it from the left, you see the king; from the right, the queen; and if you look at it straight ahead, you get a mish-mash of both. Starting in the 1950s, companies like Vari-Vue were able to mass-produce lenticular images through lenticular printing — a novelty you're probably familiar with from Cracker Jack boxes and baseball cards: These flickering images are the result of the same principle but a different process: the images are behind a small, ribbed plastic lens that shifts what's in focus. Lenticulars as fine art Artists such as Roy Lichtenstein and especially Yaacov Agam have used lenticular design in their artwork. Photographer Sally Canzoneri began creating lenticular prints for a specific exhibit proposal: it was to be displayed in NoMa, a DC neighborhood that was undergoing a lot of change. While considering how best to show that change, Canzoneri happened to see this tutorial on creating lenticular images. It was a match. "I've found that people get drawn into them in a way they don't get drawn into my flat pictures," Canzoneri said. The way viewers engage with the content "comes — at least in part — from the fact that the viewing experience is broken up and blended in an unusual way." It can also lead to happy accidents. In the print seen in the video at the top of this post, women's marches from 1913 and 2017 intersect. Because of the way the images overlap, when viewing the black-and-white image, you can see a slight pink glow above the 1913 marchers' heads. How it works Canzoneri's prints use the old-fashioned accordion style, not the plastic lens. It's a more hands-on endeavor, and one that took some experimenting to refine. It starts, of course, with two images. Using Photoshop, Canzoneri stitches together strips from each image, for a final product that looks like this when printed:Then, using a carpenter's square, she carefully folds it into the accordion shape. After a few tries, Canzoneri found the right type of paper to use and the correct fold depth (about an inch). Double Takes Which brings us to "Double Takes" — Canzoneri's exhibit of lenticular photographs on view now at The Art League. You can catch these images through February 4, 2018. Bring your walking shoes — the better to interact with the artwork. And, Canzoneri says, she hopes the photos encourage viewers to "go outside and look around with fresh eyes." Have you ever walked past an exhibit graphic that seemed to move? Or maybe the image suddenly shifted? Your eyes weren't playing tricks on you … the graphic was playing a trick on your eyes. These types of graphics are known as lenticular prints. What Are Lenticular Prints? Today's lenticulars aren't the moving image stickers you used to get at the doctor's office as a kid (or adult—no judgment here). You know the ones: if you swiveled it a bit it looked like She-Ra was raising her sword, or a transformer was … transforming. Well now that same concept makes things that do this:One of the advantages of lenticulars is that visitors can get a nice pop of 3D or animation without needing any additional equipment. As cool as everyone looks wearing those 3D glasses, it's a bit of waste to supply those for one panel. Lenticular prints simulate motion and/or dimension using specially fabricated two-dimensional prints. HOW DO THE 2D PRINTS MAKE IT LOOK 3D? It's called stereoscopy. It's a visual effect created by providing slightly offset views to both of your eyes at the same time. When your brain mushes (technical term) the two visuals together, you see the combined image with additional depth and volume. In other words, your brain takes Image 1 and Image 2 and turns into a much more awesome optical illusion. To do that, the designer has to interlace the images. One of the advantages of lenticulars is that visitors can get a nice pop of 3D or animation without needing any additional equipment. As cool as everyone looks wearing those 3D glasses, it's a bit of waste to supply those for one panel. Lenticular prints simulate motion and/or dimension using specially fabricated two-dimensional prints. HOW DO THE 2D PRINTS MAKE IT LOOK 3D? It's called stereoscopy. It's a visual effect created by providing slightly offset views to both of your eyes at the same time. When your brain mushes (technical term) the two visuals together, you see the combined image with additional depth and volume. In other words, your brain takes Image 1 and Image 2 and turns into a much more awesome optical illusion. To do that, the designer has to interlace the images. Other than they're really fun? Lenticular prints add impact to displays of static photographs and other images. They can also create a depth of content. By layering images on top of each other, a lenticular can show a before and after, or a variety of images on a theme in a way that shows shifts. Recently, Smithsonian Libraries worked with SIE to create lenticular prints for their exhibition Magnificent Obsessions: Why We Collect. Visitors could see the image of a prized possession, and then it would shift, showing the collector. Visitors can see a visual connection between the two images, and figure out that the stories behind those two images are intertwined.
Data publikacji: 04-11-21